Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|6 Months Ended|
Jul. 31, 2020
|Summary Of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
The financial statements have been prepared on the basis of going concern which contemplates continuity of normal business activities and the realisation of assets and settlement of liabilities in the ordinary course of business.
For the 6 months ended 31 July 2020 the Group experienced a loss after income tax from continuing operations of NZ$18.5 million and operating cash inflows of NZ$0.4 million. It has net current liabilities of NZ$10.2 million and a net liability position of NZ$1.7 million.
The results for the 6 months ended 31 July 2020 has been adversely impacted by COVID-19 which has negatively impacted trading due to store closures (retail and wholesale) as well as delayed inventory shipments from suppliers. To mitigate the significant impact on cash flow, the Group has worked with suppliers (including landlords) to obtain support with delayed payments and in some instances reduced payments. During the period of reporting the Group had obtained rent concessions totalling NZ$0.7 million. Employees agreed to work reduced hours and the business received subsidies from both New Zealand and Australian governments. At the date of this report the Group had received NZ$2.0 million from the New Zealand government and NZ$0.5m from the Australian Government. The Group remains in discussion with the bank who agreed to defer loan repayments.
The business also incurred transaction expenses of NZ$10.6 million, of which $4.9 million is in relation to financing the business and an additional $5.7 million being provided for to satisfy a complaint made against the Group. Please refer to note 13 for more detail.
Management has also engaged in further restructuring of the business operations, reducing costs across distribution channels, renegotiating supplier contracts, resetting customer supply commitments, and updating leadership roles.
On 12 March 2020, the Group entered into a Deed of Amendment with the Bank of New Zealand to extend its loan facility of NZD$16,700,000 (31 January 2020: NZD$17,900,000) until March 2022. The amended agreement stipulates the repayment dates to reduce the facility to March 2022 and compliance with additional covenants.
Under the terms of the facility, the Group must meet specific covenant obligations namely sales and gross margin adverse variances to budget to be no greater than 15% and inventory to cover bank debt 1.35 times (increasing to 1.65 times from and including 31 July 2020). In the first six months of the year, the Group was on average in breach of all covenant measures. The extended borrowing has therefore been classified as a current liability as at 31 July 2020. Sales, gross margin and inventory were all negatively impacted by COVID-19 due to store closures and delayed inventory shipments from suppliers.
During the period ended 31 July 2020, the Group raised $19.3m of funds through the issuance of convertible notes to assist with operating cash outflows and repay $1.2m of the bank debt carried forward from the prior year reducing the balance from $17.9m to $16.7m.
Despite the ongoing losses, and the other negative financial conditions, the Directors are confident that the Group will continue as a going concern. However, while the Directors are confident of continuing as a going concern and meeting its debt obligation to its bank and creditor commitments as they fall due, the going concern is dependent upon the Directors and Group being successful in raising additional capital, generating sufficient sales and increasing gross margins while the Group has already made significant overhead reductions.
The Directors’ believe that the Group will be successful in the raising capital, generating sales and increasing gross margin and accordingly, have prepared the report on a going concern basis.
As a result, the viability of the Group is dependent on the above maters. The dependence on these matters raises substantial doubt about the Group’s ability to continue as a going concern and therefore whether the Group will realize the assets and extinguish the liabilities in the normal course of business and the amounts stated in the financial reports.
Subsidiaries are all entities (including structured entities) over which the Group has control. The group controls an entity when the group is exposed to, or has rights to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power to direct the activities of the entity. Subsidiaries are fully consolidated from the date on which control is transferred to the group. They are deconsolidated from the date that control ceases.
Intercompany transactions, balances and unrealised gains on transactions between group companies are eliminated. Unrealised losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the transferred asset. Accounting policies of subsidiaries have been changed where necessary to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the group.
When the group ceases to consolidate or equity account for an investment because of a loss of control, joint control or significant influence, any retained interest in the entity is remeasured to its fair value with the change in carrying amount recognised in profit or loss. This fair value becomes the initial carrying amount for the purposes of subsequently accounting for the retained interest as an associate, joint venture or financial asset. In addition, any amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income in respect of that entity are accounted for as if the group had directly disposed of the related assets or liabilities. This may mean that amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss.
If the ownership interest in a joint venture or an associate is reduced but joint control or significant influence is retained, only a proportionate share of the amounts previously recognised in other comprehensive income are reclassified to profit or loss where appropriate.
Business combinations are accounted for by applying the acquisition method which requires an acquiring entity to be identified in all cases. The acquisition date under this method is the date that the acquiring entity obtains control over the acquired entity.
The fair value of identifiable assets and liabilities acquired are recognised in the consolidated financial statements at the acquisition date.
Goodwill or a gain on bargain purchase may arise on the acquisition date, this is calculated by comparing the consideration transferred and the amount of non-controlling interest in the acquiree with the fair value of the net identifiable assets acquired. Where consideration is greater than the net assets acquired, the excess is recorded as goodwill. Where the net assets acquired are greater than the consideration, the measurement basis of the net assets are reassessed and then a gain from bargain purchase recognised in profit or loss.
All acquisition-related costs are recognised as expenses in the periods in which the costs are incurred except for costs to issue debt or equity securities.
Any contingent consideration which forms part of the combination is recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. If the contingent consideration is classified as equity, then it is not remeasured, and the settlement is accounted for within equity. Otherwise subsequent changes in the value of the contingent consideration liability are measured through profit or loss.
The tax expense/(benefit) recognised in the consolidated statements of profit or loss and other comprehensive income comprises of current income tax expense plus deferred tax expense/(benefit).
Current tax is the amount of income taxes payable/(recoverable) in respect of the taxable profit/(loss) for the period and is measured at the amount expected to be paid to/(recovered from) the taxation authorities, using the tax rates and laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by each jurisdiction by the end of the reporting period. Current tax liabilities/(assets) are measured at the amounts expected to be paid to/(recovered from) the relevant taxation authority.
Deferred tax is provided on temporary differences which are determined by comparing the carrying amounts of tax bases of assets and liabilities to the carrying amounts in the consolidated financial statements.
Deferred tax is not provided for the following:
Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at the tax rates that are expected to apply to the period when the asset is realised or the liability is settled, based on tax rates (and tax laws) that have been enacted or substantively enacted by each jurisdiction by the end of the reporting period.
Deferred tax assets are recognised for all deductible temporary differences and unused tax losses to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and losses can be utilised.
Current and deferred tax is recognised as income or an expense and included in profit or loss for the period except where the tax arises from a transaction which is recognised in other comprehensive income or equity, in which case the tax is recognised in other comprehensive income or equity respectively.
In determining the amount of current and deferred income tax, the Group takes into account the impact of uncertain income tax positions and whether additional taxes and interest may be due. This assessment relies on estimates and assumptions and may involve a series of judgements about future events. New information may become available that causes the Group to change its judgement regarding the adequacy of existing tax liabilities; such changes to tax liabilities will impact the income tax expense in the period that such a determination is made.
Sale of goods
Sales of goods through retail stores, e-commerce and wholesale channels are recognised at a point in time when there has been a transfer of control of goods to the customer. Control of goods transfer at point of sale for retail stores sales. For wholesale and e- commerce sales, control of goods are transferred when goods are delivered to customers, and therefore reflects an estimate of shipments that have not been received at the reporting date based on shipping terms and historical delivery times. The Group also provides a reserve for projected merchandise returns based on prior experience.
The Group sells gift cards to customers. The Group recognises revenue from gift cards when they are redeemed by the customers. In addition, the Group recognises revenue on unredeemed gift cards after one year when the gift cards have expired.
The Group sells a range of lingerie products in the wholesale market. Sales are recognised at a point in time when control of the products has transferred, being when the products are delivered to the wholesaler, the wholesaler has full discretion over the channel and price to sell the products, and there is no unfulfilled obligation that could affect the wholesaler’s acceptance of the products. Delivery occurs when the products have been shipped to the specific location, the risks of obsolescence and loss have been transferred to the wholesaler, and either the wholesaler has accepted the products in accordance with the sales contract, the acceptance provisions have lapsed, or the group has objective evidence that all criteria for acceptance have been satisfied.
The contracts with wholesalers have no specific terms on volume and price, and are not modified during the terms. Revenue from these sales is recognised based on the price specified in the contract, net of the estimated volume discounts. The estimates of discount is based on the trading terms in the contracts, and revenue is only recognised to the extent that it is highly probable that a significant reversal will not occur. A refund liability (included in trade and other payables) is recognised for expected volume payable to customers in relation to sales made until the end of the reporting period. The Group’s obligation to provide a refund for faulty products under the standard trading terms is recognised as a provision.
The group operates a chain of retail stores and e-commerce websites selling lingerie products. Revenue from the sale of goods is recognised at a point in time when a group entity sells a product to the customer.
Payment of the transaction price is due immediately when the customer purchases the product. It is the group’s policy to sell its products to the end customer with a right of return within 30 days. Therefore, a refund liability (included in trade and other payables) and a right to the returned goods (included in inventory) are recognised for the products expected to be returned. Accumulated experience is used to estimate such returns at the time of sale at a portfolio level (expected value method).
Because the number of products returned has been steady for years, it is highly probable that a significant reversal in the cumulative revenue recognised will not occur. The validity of this assumption and the estimated amount of returns are reassessed at each reporting date.
Interest is recognised using the effective interest method and recognised when it is earned.
Dividends are recognised when the entity’s right to receive payment is established. The Group did not receive dividend revenue during the period.
Rendering of services
Revenue from service transactions are recognised as services are performed. The Group did not receive any service revenue.
Other income is recognised on an accruals basis when the Group is entitled to it. Wage subsidy and Job keeper payments are considered ‘government grants’ and accounted for under IAS 20 Accounting for Government Grants and Disclosure of Government Assistance, because they are being provided by the Government in return for compliance with conditions relating to the operating activities of the Group. The grant is recognised as income when the Group is reasonably assured that it will comply with the conditions attached to it, and the grant will be received. The grant is recognised as a receivable when the associated wage payments are made. Receipt of reimbursement from the government reduces the receivable. During the period the Group has recognised $3.2m in relation to Government grants and wage subsidies.
Corporate expenses include head office costs such as human resources, finance team and rental costs. Administrative expenses include depreciation and amortisation of intangible assets, as well as professional accounting fees. Brand management expenses includes other costs incurred in selling products, including advertising, design and retail store occupancy and payroll.
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets, which are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale, are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale. Investment income earned on the temporary investment of specific borrowing pending their expenditure on qualifying assets is deducted from the borrowing costs eligible for capitalisation.
All other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense in the period in which they are incurred.
Inventories are measured at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Cost of inventory is determined using the weighted average costs basis and is net of any rebates and discounts received. Net realisable value represents the estimated selling price for inventories less costs necessary to make the sale. Net realisable value is estimated using the most reliable evidence available at the reporting date and inventory is written down through an obsolescence provision if necessary.
Plant and equipment
Plant and equipment are measured using the cost model.
Under the cost model the asset is carried at its cost less any accumulated depreciation and any impairment losses. Costs include purchase price and other directly attributable costs associated with locating the asset to the installation site, where applicable.
Property, plant and equipment, is depreciated on a straight-line basis over the asset’s useful life to the Group, commencing when the asset is ready for use.
The estimated useful lives used for each class of depreciable asset are shown below:
At the end of each annual reporting period, the depreciation method, useful life and residual value of each asset is reviewed. Any revisions are accounted for prospectively as a change in accounting estimate.
The Group adopted IFRS 16 on 1 February 2019. The standard replaces IAS 17 ‘Leases’ and IFRIC 4 ‘Determining whether an Arrangement Contains a Lease’ and for lessees eliminates the classifications of operating leases and finance leases. Straight-line operating lease expense recognition is replaced with a depreciation charge for the right-of-use assets (included in operating costs) and an interest expense on the recognised lease liabilities (included in finance costs). In the earlier periods of the lease, the expenses associated with the lease under IFRS 16 will be higher when compared to lease expenses under IAS 17. However, EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depletion, Depreciation and Amortisation) results improve as the operating expense is now replaced by interest expense and depreciation in profit or loss. For classification within the statement of cash flows, the interest portion is disclosed in operating activities and the principal portion of the lease payments are separately disclosed in financing activities. For lessor accounting, the standard does not substantially change how a lessor accounts for leases.
During the period, the Group received rent concessions of NZ$0.7m, due to COVID-19 and has applied “practical expedients” as permitted by IFRS 16.
Right-of-use assets are depreciated on a straight-line basis over the unexpired period of the lease or the estimated useful life of the asset, whichever is the shorter. Where the Group expects to obtain ownership of the leased asset at the end of the lease term, the depreciation is over its estimated useful life. Right-of use assets are subject to impairment or adjusted for any remeasurement of lease liabilities.
A lease liability is recognised at the commencement date of a lease. The lease liability is initially recognised at the present value of the lease payments to be made over the term of the lease, discounted using the interest rate implicit in the lease or, if that rate cannot be readily determined, the consolidated entity’s incremental borrowing rate. Lease payments comprise of fixed payments less any lease incentives receivable, variable lease payments that depend on an index or a rate, amounts expected to be paid under residual value guarantees, exercise price of a purchase option when the exercise of the option is reasonably certain to occur, and any anticipated termination penalties. The variable lease payments that do not depend on an index or a rate are expensed in the period in which they are incurred.
(k) Financial instruments
Financial instruments are recognised initially using trade date accounting, i.e. on the date that the Group becomes party to the contractual provisions of the instrument.
On initial recognition, all financial instruments are measured at fair value plus transaction costs (except for instruments measured at fair value through profit or loss where transaction costs are expensed as incurred).
The Group classifies its financial assets in the following measurement categories:
The classification depends on the entity’s business model for managing the financial assets and the contractual terms of the cash flows.
For assets measured at fair value, gains and losses will either be recorded in profit or loss or OCI. For investments in equity instruments that are not held for trading, this will depend on whether the group has made an irrevocable election at the time of initial recognition to account for the equity investment at fair value through other comprehensive income (FVOCI).
The group reclassifies debt investments when and only when its business model for managing those assets changes.
(ii) Recognition and derecognition
Purchases and sales of financial assets are recognised on trade-date, the date on which the group commits to purchase or sell the asset. Financial assets are derecognised when the rights to receive cash flows from the financial assets have expired or have been transferred and the group has transferred substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership.
At initial recognition, the group measures a financial asset at its fair value plus, in the case of a financial asset not at fair value through profit or loss (FVPL), transaction costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the financial asset.
Transaction costs of financial assets carried at FVPL are expensed in profit or loss.
Financial assets with embedded derivatives are considered in their entirety when determining whether their cash flows are solely payment of principal and interest.
Subsequent measurement of debt instruments depends on the group’s business model for managing the asset and the cash flow characteristics of the asset. There are three measurement categories into which the group classifies its debt instruments:
The group subsequently measures all equity investments at fair value. Where the group’s management has elected to present fair value gains and losses on equity investments in OCI, there is no subsequent reclassification of fair value gains and losses to profit or loss following the derecognition of the investment. Dividends from such investments continue to be recognised in profit or loss as other income when the group’s right to receive payments is established.
Changes in the fair value of financial assets at FVPL are recognised in other gains/(losses) in the statement of profit or loss as applicable. Impairment losses (and reversal of impairment losses) on equity investments measured at FVOCI are not reported separately from other changes in fair value.
The Group assesses on a forward-looking basis the expected credit losses associated with its debt instruments carried at amortised cost and FVOCI. The impairment methodology applied depends on whether there has been a significant increase in credit risk.
For trade receivables, the group applies the simplified approach permitted by IFRS 9, which requires expected lifetime losses to be recognised from initial recognition of the receivables.
(v) Subsequent measurement
If there is objective evidence that an impairment loss on financial assets carried at amortised cost has been incurred, the amount of the loss is measured as the difference between the asset’s carrying amount and the present value of the estimated future cash flows discounted at the financial assets original effective interest rate.
Subsequent recoveries of amounts previously written off are credited against other expenses in profit or loss.
Financial liabilities are classified as either financial liabilities ‘at fair value through profit or loss’ or other financial liabilities depending on the purpose for which the liability was acquired. Although the Group uses derivative financial instruments in economic hedges of currency and interest rate risk, it does not hedge account for these transactions.
The Group’s financial liabilities include borrowings, trade and other payables (including finance lease liabilities), which are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method.
All of the Group’s derivative financial instruments that are not designated as hedging instruments are accounted for at fair value through profit or loss.
At the end of each reporting period the Group determines whether there is an evidence of an impairment indicator for non- financial assets.
Where an indicator exists and regardless for goodwill, indefinite life intangible assets and intangible assets not yet available for use, the recoverable amount of the asset is estimated.
Where assets do not operate independently of other assets, the recoverable amount of the relevant cash-generating unit (CGU) is estimated.
The recoverable amount of an asset or CGU is the higher of the fair value less costs of disposal and the value in use. Value in use is the present value of the future cash flows expected to be derived from an asset or cash-generating unit. Where the recoverable amount is less than the carrying amount, an impairment loss is recognised in profit or loss. Reversal indicators are considered in subsequent periods for all assets which have suffered an impairment loss, except for goodwill.
For the purpose of presentation in the statement of cash flows, cash and cash equivalents includes cash on hand, deposits held at call with financial institutions, other short-term, highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less that are readily convertible to known amounts of cash and which are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value, and bank overdrafts. Bank overdrafts are shown within borrowings in current liabilities in the balance sheet.
Trade receivables are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less expected credit losses.
These amounts represent liabilities for goods and services provided to the group prior to the end of financial year which are unpaid. The amounts are unsecured and are usually due within 30 days of recognition. Trade and other payables are presented as current liabilities unless payment is not due within 12 months after the reporting period. They are recognised initially at their fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
Goodwill is carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses. Goodwill is calculated as the excess of the sum of:
i) the consideration transferred;
ii) any non-controlling interest; and
iii) the acquisition date fair value of any previously held equity interest
over the acquisition date fair value of net identifiable assets acquired in a business combination.
The value of goodwill recognised on acquisition of each subsidiary in which the Group holds less than a 100% interest will depend on the method adopted in measuring the aforementioned non-controlling interest. The Group can elect to measure the non-controlling interest in the acquiree either at fair value (‘full goodwill method’) or at the non-controlling interest’s proportionate share of the subsidiary’s identifiable net assets (‘proportionate interest method’). The Group determines which method to adopt for each acquisition.
Patents and licences
Separately acquired patents and licences are shown at historical cost. Licenses and customer contracts acquired in a business combination are recognised at fair value at the acquisition date. They have a finite useful life and are subsequently carried at cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses. Licence fees have an estimated useful life of 5-50 years.
Software has a finite life and is carried at cost less any accumulated amortisation and impairment losses. It has an estimated useful life of between one and three years.
Brand assets relate to brands owned by the Group that have arisen on historical acquisitions. These assets were initially measured at fair value.
Brands are considered to have an indefinite life and are therefore not amortised. They are considered to have indefinite lives because there is no foreseeable limit to the period over which the asset is expected to generate net cash flows for the entity. The brands have been in existence for many years, are well established and show no signs of deteriorating.
They are assessed for impairment annually or more frequently if impairment indicators exist.
Amortisation is recognised in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of intangible assets, other than goodwill and brands, from the date that they are available for use.
Amortisation methods, useful lives and residual values are reviewed at each reporting date and adjusted if appropriate.
Goodwill and indefinite life brands are not amortised but are tested for impairment annually or more frequently if impairment indicators exist. Goodwill is allocated to the Group’s cash generating units or groups of cash generating units, which represent the lowest level at which goodwill is monitored but where such level is not larger than an operating segment. Gains and losses on the disposal of an entity include the carrying amount of goodwill related to the entity sold.
(q) Employee benefits
(i) Short-term obligations
Liabilities for wages and salaries, including non-monetary benefits and accumulating sick leave that are expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service are recognised in respect of employees’ services up to the end of the reporting period and are measured at the amounts expected to be paid when the liabilities are settled. The liabilities are presented as current employee benefit obligations in the balance sheet.
(ii) Other long-term employee benefit obligations
The liabilities for long service leave and annual leave are not expected to be settled wholly within 12 months after the end of the period in which the employees render the related service. They are therefore measured as the present value of expected future payments to be made in respect of services provided by employees up to the end of the reporting period using the projected unit credit method. Consideration is given to expected future wage and salary levels, experience of employee departures and periods of service. Expected future payments are discounted using market yields at the end of the reporting period of high-quality corporate bonds with terms and currencies that match, as closely as possible, the estimated future cash outflows. Remeasurements as a result of experience adjustments and changes in actuarial assumptions are recognised in profit or loss.
(iii) Other long-term employee benefit obligations
The obligations are presented as current liabilities in the balance sheet if the entity does not have an unconditional right to defer settlement for at least twelve months after the reporting period, regardless of when the actual settlement is expected to occur.
Provisions are recognised when the Group has a legal or constructive obligation, as a result of past events, for which it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will result, and that outflow can be reliably measured.
Provisions are measured at the present value of management’s best estimate of the outflow required to settle the obligation at the end of the reporting period. The discount rate used is a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the liability. The increase in the provision due to the unwinding of the discount is taken to finance costs in the consolidated statements of profit or loss and other comprehensive income.
Provisions recognised represent the best estimate of the amounts required to settle the obligation at the end of the reporting period.
(i) Lease incentive provision
Lease contributions include payment for improvements initially funded by the landlord. The improvement asset is capitalised and a provision for the amount of landlord contribution is recognised. The provision is released on a monthly basis over the term of the lease of the property.
(ii) Onerous contract provision
The Group provides for future losses on long-term contracts where it is considered probable that the contract costs are likely to exceed revenues in future years. A provision is required for the present value of future losses. Estimating these future losses involves a number of assumptions about the achievement of contract performance targets and the likely levels of future cost escalation over time.
(iii) Make good provision
The Group is required to restore the lease premises of various retail stores to their original condition at the end of the respective lease terms. Provisions for make good obligations are recognised when the group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events, it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and the amount can be reliably estimated. A provision is recognised for the present value of the estimated expenditure required to remove any leasehold improvements. These costs have been capitalised as part of the cost of leasehold improvements and are amortised over the lease term.
(i) Basic earnings/(loss) per share
Basic earnings/(loss) per share is calculated by dividing:
(ii) Diluted earnings/(loss) per share
For periods in which the Group has reported net losses, diluted net loss per share attributable to common shareholders is the same as basic net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, since their impact would be anti-dilutive to the calculation of net loss per share.
Borrowings are initially recognised at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred. Borrowings are subsequently measured at amortised cost. Any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the redemption amount is recognised in profit or loss over the period of the borrowings using the effective interest method. Fees paid on the establishment of loan facilities are recognised as transaction costs of the loan to the extent that it is probable that some or all of the facility will be drawn down. In this case, the fee is deferred until the draw down occurs. To the extent there is no evidence that it is probable that some or all of the facility will be drawn down, the fee is capitalised as a prepayment for liquidity services and amortised over the period of the facility to which it relates.
Borrowings are removed from the balance sheet when the obligation specified in the contract is discharged, cancelled or expired. The difference between the carrying amount of a financial liability that has been extinguished or transferred to another party and the consideration paid, including any non-cash assets transferred or liabilities assumed, is recognised in profit or loss as other income or finance costs.
Where the terms of a financial liability are renegotiated and the entity issues equity instruments to a creditor to extinguish all or part of the liability (debt for equity swap), a gain or loss is recognised in profit or loss, which is measured as the difference between the carrying amount of the financial liability and the fair value of the equity instruments issued.
Borrowings are classified as current liabilities unless the Group has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the reporting period.
On issuance of the convertible notes, an assessment is made to determine whether the convertible notes contain an equity instrument or whether the whole instrument should be classified as a financial liability.
When it is determined that the whole instrument is a financial liability and no equity instrument is identified (for example for foreign-currency-denominated convertibles notes), the conversion option is separated from the host debt and classified as a derivative liability. The carrying value of the host contract (a contract denominated in a foreign currency) at initial recognition is determined as the difference between the consideration received and the fair value of the embedded derivative. The host contract is subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method. The embedded derivative is subsequently measured at fair value at the end of each reporting period through the profit and loss. The convertible note and the derivative are presented as a single number on the balance sheet within interest-bearing loans and borrowings.
When it is determined that the instrument contains an equity component based on the terms of the contract, on issuance of the convertible notes, the fair value of the liability component is determined using a market rate for an equivalent non- convertible bond. This amount is classified as a financial liability measured at amortised cost (net of transaction costs) until it is extinguished on conversion or redemption. The remainder of the proceeds is allocated to the conversion option that is recognised and included in equity. Transaction costs are deducted from equity, net of associated income tax. The carrying amount of the conversion option is not remeasured in subsequent years.
Ordinary shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of ordinary shares and warrants are recognised as a deduction from equity, net of any tax effects.
Warrants issued by the Group and employee entitlements are recorded at fair value using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. Employee entitlements are amortised over the terms of entitlement. In assessing the fair value of equity-based compensation and warrants, estimates have to be made regarding the expected volatility in share price, option life, dividend yield, risk-free rate, estimated life and estimated forfeitures at the initial grant date.
Each of the entities within the Group prepare their financial statements based on the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (functional currency). The consolidated financial statements are presented in New Zealand dollars which is the parent entity’s functional and presentation currency.
Transaction and balances
Foreign currency transactions are recorded at the spot rate on the date of the transaction.
At the end of the reporting period:
Exchange differences arising on the settlement of monetary items or on translating monetary items at rates different from those at which they were translated on initial recognition or in prior reporting periods are recognised through profit or loss, except where they relate to an item of other comprehensive income or whether they are deferred in equity as qualifying hedges.
The financial results and position of foreign operations whose functional currency is different from the Group’s presentation currency are translated as follows:
Exchange differences arising on translation of foreign operations are transferred directly to the Group’s foreign currency translation reserve in the consolidated balance sheets. These differences are recognised in the consolidated statements of profit or loss and other comprehensive income in the period in which the operation is disposed.
Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision maker. The executive directors are the chief operating decision maker, responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments.
The entire disclosure for significant accounting policies applied by the entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef